This was conducted over the course of a week, however the gaps in the table indicate days when i was away from the computer for the day – this was due to either work or leisure.
Styles Of Learning And Teaching – Noel Entwhistle. David Fulton Publishing. 1998.
Pg. 87 – Chapter 5. Contrasting Styles of Learning
Research Groups from a University in Lancaster have started the process of looking further into the way we learn as individual people through large scale surveys which has naturally transgressed through the years into very specific and in-depth interviews to pin point what it is exactly that targets our brains to help us learn. The process began in 1968 in terms of higher education to predict degree results through the students level of motivation and personality traits. I think there are obvious flaws within this idea given that people grow up and adapt to the new lifestyles at university, so i think this would be a slightly wasted practice. However i think it is important as a person that you understand how you learn effectively, specifically at university when you are undertaking a form of learning which is much more difficult than you have undergone previously in your life. It would be interesting as a study to test people in their first year of study and then to test them at the end of their degree. This would monitor how their learning styles have changed and how they’ve grown as person too.
From these studies conducted in the 1960’s 3 different types of personality traits were identified.
– The Non Committer
– The Plunger
– The Hustler
This then led researchers to determine the question of ‘Do students in different subject areas exhibit different personality characteristics???
A large scale follow up survey was then conducted over 3 – 4 year period. 1087 students took part from seven different universities. This study undiscovered key variables to the way people think such as motivation and ambition in men was associated with emotional stability. Whereas the motivation in woman was linked to high levels of neuroticism.
Below are quotes from the book from students and their reactions towards exams and the process in general in accordance with their personality types. Some saw it as a challenge that was to be hungrily devoured and to knit an answer together out of the knowledge they had consumed in the lead up to the exam. In my experience this type of person is very rare as everybody i have ever known has always dreaded the idea of undertaking an exam in which you have a limited amount of time to write a good answer down.
The table below shows the correlation between students and their levels of motivation in accordance with their type of study and their academic performance. It shows that introverted people are more likely to achieve higher grade academically than those that are extroverted, but as a rule, according to the table it’s the emotionally stable v’s the unstable that tend to be at extremes of the scale.
Cognitive Styles and Learning Strategies – Richard Ridling + Stephen Rayner. David Fulton Publisher. 1998
Cognitive Styles is the term used to identify and reflect on how an individual thinks. It is an automatic way of thinking and responding to both information and situations.
Learning Strategy – Processes used in which the learner responds to an activity.
The theory behind cognitive style and what skills or traits go into it are
– Perception. So how a user processes information
– Cognitive Controls and Processes
– Mental Imagery – Visual or Verbal Learners
– Personality Constructs
Edmonds Learning Style Identification Excercise – ELSIE
– Visual Modality – A Learner who finds better expression through images.
– Verbal Modality – A Learner who finds it easier to learn through words and speaking aloud.
– Auditorial Modality – Somebody who learns quicker through listening to an external party explain things to them.
– Activity Based Modality – Somebody who learns through doing, and actually undertaking activities themselves to learn on the spot.
A Map of the World – Lovers Lane – pg.
Lovers Lane is a hand drawn conversational map which depicts the artists surrounding area and the track they used to travel on the way to their lovers house. The pink dotted line shows the route she used to bike along regularly and the blue shows a variation on the route, showing that humans as a species are intrinsically designed to follow patterns and the familiar. Along the way the artist has added notes on the surrounding area, describing to the viewer who lives where and their relationship to her. There are also snippets as to her past and her comments on houses and how idyllic they appeal to her. The text is very simple, yet is becomes a part of the image since it is needed to describe her home town. I like the conversational style as i think it’s really interesting to look at, especially as the map is of a place which obviously means a lot to her. Even though there is no prior connection to this woman and we don’t know who she is, she still manages to draw us into the story of the map in much the same way as the maps that tell tales. I believe this is down to the hand drawn elements. With the map being imperfect like this, all of the unnecessary elements will have been omitted to save space and to make the main aspects a lot more clearer and able to stand out. Effort has been put into all of iconographic images as no two appear to be the same just copied over. If the artist had hand drawn these, scanned them into the computer and then edited them digitally i know that this would have been a much quicker process yet it would have left her with a very clinical appearance that wouldn’t have looked half as interesting. Lastly i think having an off colour background with white roads cutting through it works well in using the space. A purely white image wouldn’t have looked as personally and the interspacing of random colours adds something to her personality, instead of making her appear very clean and straight edged.
Instead of simply just saying ‘James Used To Live Here’ we are given a smaller insight into her life as she also adds the information ‘ Falafel Nights’. As for the distance of her hometown the only indication we are given as to the key is the time it takes for her to get from her own house to that of her lovers. Given that this is a map entitled Lovers Lane this feels very apt and actually inscribing a key onto this form of map, with it being geographically inaccurate would be a very difficult process that would really have no use as the map isn’t and would never be used to direct a person around the culdesac. The map is merely a canvas in which she has used as a format for the background. Her annotations give more of a vague impression in some area’s too as she merely states at one point ‘Laura lives some where on Ruskolme Dr.’ and the writing is never in a set linear pattern. It is often set upside down or to the side.
Shown here is the key which isn’t given any sort of privileges or side set apart specifically to make it stand out. It’s merely been slotted into the page wherever it will fit and stands out purely for the large area of white space and the title located within here. Along from the title is a tiny stickman bike rider who is the clearest indication, at a glance, that this was a route more commonly rode along than walked.
I think it would be quite interesting to contextualise a map of Worcester where i have lived at University for nearly three years, with that of Lovers Lane. The variety of people you meet at university are vastly different and are all spread throughout the city enabling many memories of these people and the houses you have visited to not be condensed into one specific area. Also the advantages to living in many different houses over the course of my time here gives a wider range of the stories i have gathered through the people i have lived with and the handful of things that have gone wrong with my homes through man made and natural means. I think having three years worth of information could become very confusing however, especially when put over one map and so i may even look into producing three different ones that can be overlain on top of one another yet would hold and exhibit the information more clearly as a whole.
This is another map gathered from the same book as Lovers Lane. Like the previous map there is again a very conversational style to the map which depicts the city of Sydney, Australia. Gives information that tourists would be more interested in such as giving advice on destinations like the Opera House, The Sydney Theatre, Walsh Bay and the Observatory. Information such as the distances between these locations are given and the place names are actually put into a much bolder typeface so they immediately jump out and are noticed first. There’s no colour given on the map, as it’s a basic monotone scheme which works well with the hand drawn qualities and the conversational tone.
The maps that tell tales that i have looked into previously over my course of study track the outside activity of individuals in a specific place. But with the introduction of technology and the progression of the 21st Century more and more people are spending time indoors. Change4Life is a company funded by the NHS with the purpose of encouraging families to make smart food swaps and replace sugary snacks that have high fat contents for fruit and vegetables. they also aim to get more families walking during their commute to work or school rather than using the quicker option of simply climbing into the car. (http://www.nhs.uk/change4life/Pages/change-for-life.aspx).
Before the creation of the internet in the early 1990’s accessing data and information was much harder than it is during these modern times. It involved a trip down to the local library, and searching through archives and reference books to locate the required information. Now it’s so much simpler. All it takes is a quick log on to the internet through your computer and more recently your smartphone and you can find the answer you were looking for in less than a second. Whilst this natural progression of the human race is amazing and we can now keep in contact with friends and family all over the world with the help of free social networking sites, download music more effectively and stream live television all from the comfort of whatever device we’re using at the time, this has also had disastrous consequences on the lifestyles of younger generations who have grown up with this connection to the internet so readily available to them. The ‘Internet Addict’ is a phrase becoming more and more common in day to day life. I myself have friends who claim they couldn’t live without the internet. They are constantly checking their online social media sites or scrolling through youtube and can even read the news online, opting to do that instead of buying a newspaper from the corner shop two minutes down the road because it’s easier, faster and cheaper to simply download the BBC or SKY news app straight onto their mobile phones. Leading to another question is this the death of print, but i digress.
I downloaded an application onto my web browser to monitor the amount of time i spend on the internet and to see which are the most commonly visited websites used in my day to day activity. (Please bare in mind when viewing these results that the wordpress sites are for my university blogs as i am in the last stretch of my final year. I will post the results of my online activity at ten pm each day whilst i track how frequently i use the internet so try and keep the results as accurate as possible. Variables such as others using my laptop and my getting distracted and leaving the monitor switched on must be taken into account. But other than that i will aim to use my laptop exactly how i would should i not be timing myself and i will remember to only use Chrome as my browser. I have also asked my 16 year old sister to track her online performance as something to compare my results with.)
Ordnance Survey Maps A Descriptive Manual – J B Harley. University Press. Oxford Publishing House
The use of a grid over an image is important in the sense that the contents page, or key of information, will usually give the points of interest such as place or street names and buildings as a reference point in accordance with the grid so the user can more easily identify with where they want to go. It’s very important f
or this grid to have a universal layout in order for there to be little confusion between the cross over of using different maps.
Navigation In The Mountains- Carlo Forte. Mountain Training UK
Img pg 27. This image shows the lining up of elements in accordance with the map, so key points are linked together and the user has more of a solid approach to understand where they are and where
they need to go.
The history of Topographical Maps – P.D.A. Harvey. Thames and Hudson Publishing House
A topographical map illustrates the shapes and patterns of a landscape on a much larger scale that a traditional map. It acts to give more of a vague impression of an environment and is more often than not a lot more difficult to decipher due to the amount of information concerning points of reference that is located over the course of the image. Main roads and pathways are typically not included but monasteries, churches and other points of interest such as these may commonly be found.
“Second Century Geographer Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) Distinguishes between ‘geographic maps’ of the whole world, which shoes features by lines and dots, and ‘chorographic maps’ of smaller area, which make use of some pictorial elements.” Pg. 9
“To Ptolemy the difference between these (geographic, chorographic and also cadastral maps) was fundamental.” Cadastral maps – official map drawn to serve the basis for taxation. Pg. 9
Map of the Black Forest, facing south by Johann Georg Tibianus. Published 1578 and reissued 1603. Pictures take the place of conventional signs except for the abbot’s crozier marking monesteries. Pg 10 – 11